Contents

CHAPTER 1

POVERTY

Meaning and Concept

1

Dictionary Meaning

1

Another Meaning

1

Terms Related to Poverty

1

Absolute Poverty

1

Relative Poverty

2

Primary Poverty

2

Secondary Poverty

2

Poverty Line

2

Poverty Trap

2

Cycle of Poverty

3

Quotes

3

Indicative Figures

3

Below Poverty Line

3

Understanding who are Poor

4

Who all constitute poor?

4

Need to Define the Problems of Poverty and its Magnitude

4

Social Exclusion

4

Identification

5

Aggregation

5

Manifestations of Poverty

5

Negative Discrimination

5

Types of Income Poverty

6

Poverty Groups

6

Stunted Child

7

Wasted Child

7

Underweight

7

Determinants of Poverty

7

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

7

Eight Goals

7

Comments

8

Measures of Human Deprivation Devised by United Nations Development Programme

8

CPM

8

Comments

8

HPI

8

Indicators

9

Concepts

9

Harijan

9

Dalit

9

Garibi Hatao

9

Mandal Commission

9

Social Engineering

10

Affirmative Action

10

Inclusive Growth

10

The Creamy Layer

11

Empowerment

11

CHAPTER 2

APPROACH OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION TOWARDS THE POOR

Issues Related to Poverty in India

12

Preamble

12

Socialistic Concept

13

A Resume of Constitutional Provisions having a Bearing on Poverty and Development

13

Citizenship

13

Article 5 - Citizenship at the Commencement of the Constitution

13

Right to Equality

14

Equality Before Law

14

Article 15. Prohibition of Discrimination

14

Article 16. Equality of Opportunity in Matters of Public Employment

14

Article 17. Abolition of Untouchability

14

Article 21. Right to Life

14

Illustrations

15

Article 21A

15

Directive Principles of State Policy and Poverty in India

15

Social Justice

15

Fundamental Duties

16

Article 51(A)(k)

16

Other Provisions

17

Article 243D

17

Article 325

17

Part XVI -Articles 330 to 342

17

CHAPTER 3

ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMMES

Twin Fold Objectives

18

Underlying Aim

18

Payments

18

The Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP)

18

Guarantee of Employment: Section 3(2)

19

Operational since 1980

19

Target Group

19

Ceiling for Subsidy

19

Pattern of Coverage

19

Actual Beneficiaries

19

Analysis

20

National Rural Employment Programme (NREP)

 20

Significant Features

20

Priority

20

Allocation

20

Division

20

Execution

20

Co-option

20

Drawbacks

20

Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) (August 1983)

 20

Objective

20

Details

21

Jawahar Rojgar Yojna (JRY)

21

Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY)

21

Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojna (SGRY)

21

Indira Awas Yojna (IAY)

22

Public Distribution System (PDS)

22

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 MGNREGA

 22

Aim

23

Nodal Agency

23

Implementation

23

Sharing of Expenses

23

Provisions under NREGA

23

Rural Area section 2(0)?

23

History and Funding

23

Section 2(f)

24

Criticism

24

Legal Aspects

24

Ninth Plan Strategy for IRDP

 24

Objectives

24

Developmental Activities

25

Rajiv Awas Yojna

25

Panchayat Raj Institutions

25

Criticism

26

Non-governmental Initiatives

 26

Self Help Groups

26

CHAPTER 4

BONDED LABOUR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

27

Begar

27

Forced Labour

27

Constitution of India, Article 23: Right Against Exploitation

27

Slave

28

Debt Bondage

28

International Labour Organisation and Forced Bonded Labour

28

PUCL Case

28

Freedom from Bondage

 29

The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976

29

Salient Features

29

Preamble

29

Bonded Labour, Section 2(e)

29

Bonded Labourer, Section 2(f)

29

Bonded Labour System, Section 2(g)

29

Act to have Overriding Effect, Section 3

30

Abolition of Bonded Labour System, Section 4(1)

30

Section 4(2)

30

Agreement, Custom, Etc., to be Void, Section 5

30

Burden of Proof, Section 15

30

CHAPTER 5

ABOLITION OF UNTOUCHABILITY

Constitution of India Article 17

32

The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955

32

Preamble

32

Definitions

32

Civil Rights

32

Place

32

Provisions of the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955

32

Offences

32

Abolition of Untouchability

33

Presumption by Courts in Certain Cases, Section 12

33

Legal Aid, Section 15A(2)(i)

33

Special Courts

34

Committees, Section 15(A)(2)(iv)

34

Constitutional Bodies

34

CHAPTER 6

DEBT RELIEF

Maharashtra Debt Relief Act, 1975

 35

Preamble

35

Salient Features

35

Farmer's Debt Waiver Scheme, May 2008

 35

Estimated Beneficiaries

36

CHAPTER 7

DEVELOPMENT

Right

37

Development

37

Background

37

United Nations Charter

37

Fundamental Core Element

38

Right to Development (RTD)

38

Right to Development is a Group Right

38

The Rio Declaration, 1992

38

The Principles of the RIO Declaration

38

Copenhagen Declaration, 1995

39

Right to Development Includes

39

Declaration on the Right to Development

39

Recognition

39

Certain Advances

39

Target

39

Legal Relevance

39

CHAPTER 8

CRIMINAL LAW AND THE POOR

Constitutional Aim

40

Case-Law

41

Victims of Bail Justice

41

Purpose Behind Bail Provisions

42

Interim Bail

42

Bailable

42

Legal Provisions - Criminal Procedure Code Sections 436 to 450

42

Problems for the Poor

42

Victims of Prison Injustice

43

Problems of Under-trials

43

Abuse and Challenges

43

Criminal Procedure Code, Chapter VIII, Sections 106 to 124

44

CHAPTER 9

RENDITION OF LEGAL AID

Corrective Steps

 46

Preamble of Constitution

46

Significance

47

The Legal Services Authority Act, 1987

47

Preamble

47

The Statute Highlighted

47

Definitions

47

Supreme Court Legal Services Committee

48

Functions of the Central Authority

48

Functions of the State Authority

48

Entitlement to Legal Services

48

Free Legal Services

49

Lok Adalats

49

Section 19

49

Status

50

Connotation of Terms Used

50

Compromise

50

Settlement

50

Refund of Court Fees

50

Public Utility Service

50

CHAPTER 10

WOMEN, CHILDREN AND THOSE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Fundamental Duties

52

Situation Before Enactment of Modern Laws

52

Crimes Against women

53

Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (As Amended in 2005)

53

Status of Female Hindus

53

Criticism

53

Gender Bias or Inadequacies

54

Anti-dowry Laws

 54

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

54

Preamble

54

Section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act

55

Stridhan

55

Offences with Regard to Dowry and Wife

55

Penalties

55

IPC Section 406 - Punishment for Criminal Breach of Trust

55

IPC Section 304B

56

IPC Section 498A

56

Nature of Offence

56

Domestic Violence Act, 2005

57

Preamble

57

Domestic Violence - Section 5

57

Appraisal

58

Significance

58

Beneficiaries

58

Live-in Relationship

58

Status of Children

59

Shelter

59

Maintenance

59

Criminal Procedure Code

59

Limitation

60

Bar to Relief

60

Advantage

60

Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 - Section 18

60

Muslim Marriage

 60

Significant Features

60

Other Types of Marriage

61

Status

61

Prohibitions

61

Call for Reforms

61

Suggestions

61

Nikah Namah

62

Punishment

62

The Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939

62

Preamble

62

Inadequacy of 1939 Law

62

Challenges for Muslim Women

63

Comments

63

Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986

63

Comments

63

Imrat-e-Shariah

63

Child Custody

 64

Relevance

64

Need

64

The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956

64

Family Courts

 64

Family Court Act, 1984

65

Special Features

65

Association of Social Welfare Agencies, Etc. - Section 5

65

Criticism/Inadequacies

66

Sex Determination

 66

Female Foeticide

67

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1972 (in short MTP Act)

67

Abortion Allowed Where

68

Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994

68

Maternity Benefits

 69

Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

69

Preamble

69

Sexual Harassment at Work Place

 70

What is it?

70

Other Forms

70

Reasons

70

Offences under Indian Penal Code

71

Vishaka Guidelines

71

Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill, 2010

71

Preamble

71

Comments

72

Immoral Traffic

 72

Legal Status

72

Comments

74

Honour Killings

 74

Protection Homes

75

National Widow Pension Scheme

 75

Rights of the Disabled

 75

Types of Disabilities

76

Contemporary International Approach

77

Mental Health Act, 1987

77

The Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992

77

The Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995

77

Approach

77

The National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999

77

Inadequacies

77

Challenges (Illustrative)

78

Illustrative Case Law

78

Rights of Mentally Retarded

78

Challenges

78

Mentally III Deserve a Right to

78

International Year of Disabled Persons 1981

78

Mental Health Act, 1987

78

Preamble

79

Case Law

79

Child Labour

 79

Actual Difficulties

80

Sectors Involved

80

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

80

Twin Objective

80

Employment Banned

80

Section 4

80

Challenges

80

Right to Education

 81

Article 21A

81

Definition

82

Criticism

82

Street Children

 83

Rights of Elderly

 83

QUESTION BANK

Multiple Choice Questions

85

Fill in the Gaps

86

Fill in the Gaps

90

True or False

90

Match the Following

90

Model Answers

91

Subject Index

326

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